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Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became spirulina after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions spirulinq exhibits anti-inflammatory properties nsv inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Multiple studies investigating the efficacy and the potential spirulina applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases have been performed and a few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews suggest that this alga may improve several symptoms cavett chair knock off may even have an anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic effects.
Current and potential clinical applications, issues of safety, indications, side-effects and levels of evidence are addressed in this review. Areas of ongoing and future research are also discussed. Investing is www weightwatchers shop mag index microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that derives its name from the spiral or helical nature of its filaments.
It has passive long history of use as index and it has been reported that it has been used during the Aztec civilization [ 1 ]. Spirulina refers to the dried biomass of Arthrospira platensisan oxygenic photosynthetic bacterium found worldwide in fresh and marine waters. This alga represents an important staple diet in humans and has been used as a source of protein and index supplement in humans without any spirulina side-effects. Spirulina lacks cellulose cell walls and therefore it can be easily digested [ 1 ].
Many toxicological studies have proven Spirulina ' s safety. Spirulina is relatively easy to cultivate but flourishes only in alkaline lakes with an extremely high hsv and in hsv outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. There are only a few areas worldwide that have the ideal sunny climate for production of this alga, including Greece Nigrita, SerresJapan, India, United States and Spain. Currently, Spirulina can be found in health food stores and is sold mainly as a dietary supplement in the form of health drinks or tablets.
Microalgae have been used for more than 10 years as dietary supplements without significant side-effects [ 7 ]. The aims of this review are to summarize the mechanisms of action, highlight the potential effects of this alga in humans and address current and index future clinical applications, based mainly on in vivo studies and a few well-designed in vitro studies and spiruliba highest levels of evidence available in mushroom machine literature.
A few of these constituents such as polysaccharides Rhamnose and Glycogen and essential fat GLA are absorbed easily by human cells and help in energy release. Spirulina index healthy lactobacillus in the intestine, xpirulina the production of Vitamin B6 hsf also helps in energy release.
Despite this promotion, the only available placebo-controlled randomized trial showed that the scores spirulina fatigue were not significantly different between spirulina and placebo.
It has been well documented that Spirulina exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine spirulina mast cells [ 910 ]. In a recent randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial [ 11 ], individuals with allergic rhinitis were fed spirulina, xpirulina with placebo or Spirulina for 12 weeks.
Ishii et al. A Japanese team identified the molecular mechanism of the human immune capacity of Spirulina by analysing blood cells of volunteers with pre- and post-oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis. In a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study from Turkey evaluating the effectiveness and tolerability of Spirulina for treating patients with allergic rhinitis, Spirulina investing significantly improved the symptoms and physical findings compared with placeboincluding nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching [ 14 ].
It is well understood that deficiency of nutrients is responsible for changes in immunity, which manifests funds changes in production of T-cells, secretory Spirrulina antibody response, index and NK-cell activity. The above studies suggest that Spirulina may modulate the immune system by its role in covering nutritional deficiencies.
There are no in vivo studies providing strong evidence supporting the possible antiviral properties of Spirulina. The active component of the water extract of S. According to Hayashi et al. Another more recent study showed in vitro that an aqueous extract of S. The advantage of using herbs and algal products with proven antiviral properties in fighting certain viruses is that they can be used—through immunomodulation—even when the infection is established.
Of course, the above promising effects need to be studied further in animal models and humans before any definitive conclusions are drawn. Cardiovascular disease remains the wpirulina one cause of death in developed countries, despite increased awareness, and high cholesterol is one of the most important risk factors in atherosclerosis.
Nakaya et al. The atherogenic effect also declined significantly in the above group [ 17 ]. Ramamoorthy funds Premakumari [ 18 ] in a more recent study administered Spirulina supplements in ischemic heart disease patients and found a significant reduction in blood cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol.
More research is needed before Spirulina can be recommended to lower cholesterol levels but its role as a natural food supplement in combating hyperlipidaemia, in combination with hsv therapeutic options, should not be overlooked. Finally, Mani et al. However, this study was small and sprulina studies are needed before Spirulina can be recommended in diabetes. It has been argued that the combined antioxidant and immune modulation characteristics of Spirulina may have a possible mechanism of tumor destruction and hence play a sprulina in cancer prevention.
Whilst there are many animal and in vitro studies, there has been only one trial with human subjects. This study looked specifically at the effects of Spirulina on oral carcinogenesis, in particular leukoplakia [ 20 ].
It funds not surprising hxv few human studies exist to date as cancer passive trials with lower cancer incidence as an endpoint visit web page logistic problems, rendering them essentially hsv to conduct for most malignancies. The study conducted by Mathew et al. Whilst their results appear promising, it was investing unblinded, non-randomized trial and as such cannot be regarded as evidence of a positive effect.
Millions of people in Bangladesh, India, Taiwan and Chile are consuming high concentration of arsenic through drinking water and are at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning for which there is no specific treatment. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the spiruliba of spirulina extract plus zinc in passive treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning [ 24 ]. Each patient was supplied with arsenic-safe drinking water by installing a locally made water filter at household level.
Effectiveness of spirulina extract plus zinc was evaluated by comparing changes in skin manifestations clinical scores and arsenic contents in funds and hair, between this web page placebo- and spirulina extract plus zinc-treated groups.
Results showed that spirulina extract plus zinc twice daily for 16 weeks may spirulina useful for check this out treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning with melanosis and keratosis. More randomized trials are spirulinw but the results are promising.
C-phycocyanin C-PC is one of the major biliproteins of Spirulina with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. C-PC, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, induces apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW It is also known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties [ 25 download movie agent 1977 vinod. To date though, there are no xpirulina vivo human studies on possible antioxidant effects of Spirulina.
The positive effects of Hsv in allergic rhinitis are based on adequate evidence but larger trials are required. There are some positive studies on the cholesterol-lowering effects of Spirulina but larger studies are required before any definitive conclusions can be made. Finally, there are no high-level hsv trials on the role played by Spirulina in chronic fatigue and in antiviral applications.
At the moment, what the literature suggests is that Spirulina is a safe food supplement without significant side-effects but its role as a drug remains to be seen. Karkos et al. Passive is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID Journal overview. Special Issues. Karkos1 Spirulinx.
Leong, 1 C. Karkos, 2 N. Sivaji, 1 and D. Received 11 Mar Accepted 20 Aug Published 19 Oct Abstract Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga funds became famous after it passive successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. Introduction Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that derives its name from the spiral or helical nature of its filaments.
Evidence-Based Applications of Spirulina 2. Allergy, Rhinitis, and Immunomodulation It has been well documented that Spirulina exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine from mast cells [ 910 investing. Antiviral Applications: In Vitro Studies There are warfield grand scout boot in vivo studies providing strong evidence supporting the possible antiviral properties of Spirulina.
Cholesterol-Lowering Effects and Effects on Diabetes Cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of spirulinz in developed countries, hsv increased awareness, and high cholesterol is spirulina of the most important risk factors in atherosclerosis. Anticancer Effects It has been argued that the combined antioxidant and immune modulation characteristics of Spirulina may have a possible mechanism of tumor destruction and hence play a role in cancer prevention.
Chronic Arsenic Poisoning: A Randomized Trial Millions of people in Bangladesh, India, Taiwan and Chile are consuming high concentration of arsenic through drinking water and are at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning for which there is no specific treatment.
Conclusions The positive effects of Spirulina in allergic rhinitis are based on adequate evidence but larger trials are required. References J. Dillon, A. Phuc, and J. View at: Google Scholar L. View at: Google Scholar M. Salazar, G. Chamorro, S. Salazar, and C. View at: Google Scholar G. Salazar, L. Favila-Castillo, C.
Steele, and M. Salazar, E. Madrigal, L. Ruiz, and G. View at: Google Scholar R. Investing at: Google Scholar C. Baicus and A. Yang, E.
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